Monday, March 2, 2015

Cellular Respiration

Respiration: Breaks down food to make ATP or energy in the Mitochondria.  Requires oxygen.

Bacteria use their outer membrane.

Aerobic Respiration: Respiration  in the presence of Oxygen

Anaerobic Respiration: (Turbo button) Respiration without Oxygen and leaves lactic acid (pain).

Heterotrophs (Animals, Fungi): convert organic compounds (food) in the presence of Oxygen to create ATP (energy) & Carbon Dioxide (CO2).

Autotrophs (Plants, Algae): Converts Carbon Dioxide to Oxygen

  1. GLYCOLYSIS: (In cytoplasm) Glucose (6c) converted to Pyruvate (two 3C & 2ATP &NADH)
    1. Pyruvate diffuses into the Mitochondria where it is converted to acetyl CoA (2 C molecule to enter Krebs Cycle & gives off CO2).
  2. KREBS CYCLE: AcetyleCoA gives of 2 ATO & CO2.  Adds energy to NADH and FADH2. 
  3. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN: NADH and FADH2 transfer eletrons to this series of proteins to pump protons to the inner membrane space.  By products are combined here to produce water.  Produces 32 to 34 ATP in this last step.  ATP Synthase (in this ETC) : as every proton goes through, it converts ADP to ATP.
Anaerobic Problem: In Glycolysis, protons are given to NAD+  to make NADH  and uses up all the NAD+ so glycolysis breaks down and stops.


Lactic Acid Fermentation: Glycolysis goes to form Pyruvate and then Lactate (which makes more NAD+ to recycle NADH).   This what builds up the toxin lactic acid.  O2 will remove it eventually.

Alcoholic Fermentation works the same, and makes Ethyl alcohol instead of Lactate.

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