Friday, February 27, 2015

Tour of the Cell

Prokaryote-no nucleus, Bacteria and Archaebacteria
·         No Nucleus-free floating DNA
·         Cell Membrane
·         Cytosol
·         Ribosomes
Eukaryote-animals, plants, fungus, protists (much larger)
·         Organelles including:
·         Cytoskeleton: structure inside the cell (works like a bridge)-microtubules (compressional support) and microfilaments (tensional support)
·         Nucleus (contains DNA and controls cells, makes proteins and enzymes) & Nucleolus (within nucleus, holds the chromosomes that make ribosomes only & where ribosomes are synthesized)
·         Ribosome (mrNA goes through then tRNA comes and builds proteins on it)
·         Mitochondria-generate energy (ATP); endosymbiotic theory (have own DNA & binary fission)
·         Cell Membrane
·         Cytosol-fluid with solutes
·         Lysosome-digestive enzymes that will break down vesicles or if it pops can kill the cell itself “apoptosis” (suicide)
·         Centrioles: positioning in cell, including positions nucleus & roles in cell division (forms division)
·         Cytoplasm
·         Secretory Vesicle (membrane bound container that moves material i.e. vacuole)
·         Rough Endoplasmic reticulum)-membrane continuous with the nucleus. Rough have mRNA to make proteins & produces membranes.
·         Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum:  produces lipids, cholesterol & detoxification
·         Flagellum
·         Vacuole-large are in plants only; stores water & maintains turgor pressure (cell pressure)
·         Golgi Body:  where proteins are modified (shipping/sorting part of cell)
How things go in and out of cells:
·         Diffusion
·         Osmosis

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