Diffusion: movement of a chemical from high concentration to low concentration against a gradient. (energized by kinetic energy of particles bouncing around to get equilibrium)
- solvent: higher concentration of a chemical in a mixture (called a "solution") (more of)
- solute: lower concentrated chemical in a mixture (It has been "dissolved" into the solvent. (less of)
Osmosis: solvent is water because it is polar (and only works in water). Concentrations of chemical will move to get equilibrium (how cells work in attracting water).
- In osmosis, the solute chemical is too large to leave the membrane (container) and blocks the solvent from escaping
- Water can go in and out so it is "semi-permeable".
- Net effect: more water goes in. Solute goes from hypotonic to hypertonic-why it goes against the gradient.
Hypertonic solutions: higher in concentration of the solute than the solution
Hypotonic solutions: lower in concentration of a solvent
Chemical goes from hypertonic solution to the hypotonic solution